The price of getting there

Commuters heading to Washington DC were surprised to see tolls as high as $40 earlier this week. A congested 10-mile segment of I-66 in Northern Virginia opened to solo drivers as long as they were willing to pay a premium price. (Vehicles with two or more people are exempt from the toll.)

Toll sign on I-66 (WJLA)

The state’s highway department is legally required to set the toll at a level that will allow traffic to flow freely (55 mph). This means the tolls have to be set high to prevent the lanes from becoming overcrowded and congested. In an unusual way this high toll illustrates the high cost of roads that are under used.

I recently learned of a different approach to managing congestion called Pico y Placa (peak and plate). This rule restricted a portion of the city’s cars from driving during peak commuting hours based on the last digit of the license plate. This rule forced drivers to find an alternative method of getting around during peak hours of congestion. Enrique Peñalosa pioneered this approach in Bogota, Colombia.

While drivers in Northern Virginia are understandably upset about the high cost of the toll road, I doubt they would be any happier with the Pico y Placa rule. Americans tend not to like restrictions on their freedom.

There are no quick fixes to auto congestion. Eventually, drivers pay for the privilege of traveling in crowded places. The city of London has charged drivers who enter the center city for nearly 15 years. Yet I’m not aware of any North American cities that have followed their lead.

The only long term solutions involve building communities that allow us to remove the auto from the equation by enabling citizens to make trips on foot, bicycle or transit.

A plaza in name only

Lansing, Michigan is perhaps best known for being the state capitol and neighbor to Michigan State University – my alma mater. It is also home to the Frandor Shopping Center, the second oldest suburban shopping center in the state. As an undergrad student, I often found myself imagining redevelopment scenarios for this site.

Frandor – facing south (Lormax Stern Development Company)

Frandor’s 450,000 sq. feet of retail floor space surround a massive 1,000-car surface parking lot. Whenever I shopped at Frandor, I felt like it was missing something important. Few major improvements have been made to the site over the nearly fifty years from its construction in 1954 and my first visit.

While the site typically felt busy and seemed to have few vacancies, it also felt strangely isolated. The three state highways bordering the site fed shoppers in automobiles but also served as trenches separating it from the rest of the city.

I still believe that Frandor offers a unique opportunity for urban infill. And I’m not alone.

The 2012 Design Lansing Comprehensive Plan (PDF) classified the Frandor area as a “Community Mixed Use Center” in its Future Land Use Map. The plan defines typical densities and building heights for the district as follows:

Building heights of 4-6 stories (25-60 dwelling units per acre) transitioning to 2-3 stories (6 -20 dwelling units per acre) and a more residential emphasis on neighborhood edges. (Page 195, Design Lansing Comprehensive Plan)

Two years ago the Lansing State Journal reported on a development called “SkyVue” which proposed to add 359 new residential units to the southeast of Frandor on the site of a former Oldsmobile dealership. The 9-story building  will bring roughly a thousand new residents within walking distance of the shopping center. I wonder how the tastes and preferences of these new customers will affect the retail offerings inside Frandor. The Google Streetview image below shows the development underway.

In spite of this progress, Frandor remains a plaza in name only. Its central courtyard could be an attractive public space. Instead it is used as a parking lot. Given the site’s location within the region and the age of the existing development, it is only a matter of time before all new buildings take shape. In future posts I will explore some desirable urban development futures for the area.

Driving into the blizzard

You can’t do a thing about yesterday. But when costs increase, imaginations wane and options narrow.

I was inspired to write this after reading another article on Plant Vogtle. A recent Georgia Public Service Commission report found that the nuclear reactor will cost $1.6 billion more than energy from other sources. Vogtle is the only active nuclear power project underway in the United States. It is notoriously behind schedule, over budget, and troubled by a revolving door of contractors managing the project.

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Straphanger

Taras Grescoe presents a transit-oriented travelogue of ten global cities in his 2012 book Straphanger: Saving Our Cities and Ourselves from the Automobile. While Grescoe advocates strongly for public transportation, he has intentionally chosen to visit locations where transit has stagnated and conduct interviews with people who fervently believe in the superiority of private automobility. For the transit-curious reader, this book presents a broad and detailed picture of the state of the industry in large cities in the Americas, Asia & Europe.

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Where have all the shoppers gone?

This weekend, I spit up my coffee laughing at a Saturday Night Live segment lampooning over-the-top “Black Friday” sales events.

I wonder if future generations of Americans will laugh at this. As Seth Godin and others have observed, the era of race-to-the bottom retail pricing is coming to an end. Brick and mortar retailers who compete primarily on price are waging a losing war with online retailers. Will the shopping stampede mentality be recognizable in ten or twenty years? I doubt it.

Interestingly, this trend can be observed in real time. The Strong Towns weblog challenged its followers to document parking lot conditions on the Friday after Thanksgiving. A brief scan of the pictures uploaded using their #blackfridayparking tag shows countless acres of empty asphalt. (At a public meeting earlier I once heard a municipal engineer proclaim that requiring a parking lot to serve the maximum potential attendance for a stadium was like “building for Easter Sunday.” I wonder if he would extend this thinking to retailers.)

As a planner this trend leaves me with a few unanswered questions:

  • what will happen to this under-utilized retail space?
  • how much will retail employment shrink?
  • how will cities of the future link their virtual economies (online shopping) with physical spaces?

[p.s. the title of this post was inspired by the Paula Cole song, Where have all the cowboys gone?]

Seeing my neighborhood through new eyes

Three weeks ago, my wife gave birth to our first child. He is adorable and healthy. I could go on and on about the “wee bairn” as we’re fond of calling him. But I’d like to focus on another aspect of this experience for the moment.

Fortunately, I was able to take off some time from work to spend with my family during this special time. This meant that I started experiencing my neighborhood from a new point of view

During this time I got to understand the rhythms of weekday life on my street. As Jane Jacobs called it, “the ballet of the good city sidewalk.” For several days I observed the dog walkers, mail carriers, church goers, students, tourists, and other sorts of people traversing our street. I got to understand how disruptive events (like fire trucks racing away from the station or a neighbor power washing his fence) punctuated the relative tranquility.

I also started to see familiar places in my neighborhood from a completely different perspective. I found that my walking behavior changed substantially when I wore the baby on my body. I crossed intersections feeling more vulnerable and exposed. A crosswalk I would have eagerly approached in October seemed suddenly less hospitable.

In an age before the auto, it’s easy to imagine how my street would have fostered children playing. Tall trees provide shade. The houses face the street allowing parents to watch over the little ones. The brick road surface should slow down traffic. However these factors can’t fully overcome the visceral threat that parents feel about allowing children to play anywhere near streets intended to move cars efficiently.

Thankfully there are many people advocating to make public spaces suitable for children. A few years ago I learned about the 8 80 Cities organization which was founded by Guillermo Penalosa. They focus on creating great public spaces that work for 8-year-olds and 80-year-olds. Now more than ever I realize the importance of this mission.

The exponential growth of Savannah

I recently found a map of the municipal annexations of the City of Savannah. The animation below illustrates the growth of the municipality from 1838 to 1979.

(Note: some annexations in the map were combined to simplify the animation.)

This rate of growth starkly contrasts with Savannah’s first century as a city. During that period, city’s footprint grew in increments of wards.

Over the period shown in the animation above, the city’s population grew 12-fold from just over 11,000 (1840 census) to  over 141,000 (1980 census). In hindsight, I wish I had used GIS for this exercise so I could provide an accurate comparison of the change in land area over the same time period.

Paris Reborn

We fool ourselves into thinking that the problems of the today’s cities are isolated to the present era. In Paris Reborn, Stephane Kirkland examines the wholesale rebuilding of Paris during the French Second Empire (1852-1870) when the political, economic, and social forces aligned to allow Napoleon III to implement an unprecedented vision for urban modernization. This enormous project would have been impossible without Georges-Eugène Haussmann, the prefect of the Seine.

What struck me was how many of the issues facing Paris over a century and a half ago are still relevant in our contemporary debates about urban places.

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A day in Columbus, Georgia

Last week I visited Columbus, Georgia for the first time. Between sessions of the Georgia Planning Association’s (GPA) fall conference I had a chance to explore the downtown.

Public Spaces

I was surprised by the quantity and variety of public spaces in downtown Columbus. Some of these were attractive and well designed. Yet, in spite of this, I witnessed only a few people taking advantage of these spaces.

I would be interested to see these places at their most active times. It appears that the city can host quite a large crowd throughout its downtown and adjacent riverfront.

Walking the streets of Columbus felt like a city wearing over-sized clothes.  (Strangely, this trend was even present in my hotel room which felt vast and lonely.) In this respect it resembles many rust belt cities that have lost industry and population over a span of decades.

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Reclaim your neighborhood’s power

Your home is connected to a vast electrical power system. It’s often impossible to know precisely where your power comes from at any given time. While this system has worked well for decades, there is growing evidence that a clean energy revolution is coming soon.

I believe  communities across North America have a unique opportunity to reclaim control of the generation and distribution of their power sources at the scale of the city block.  There are two ways to accomplish this transition to block-scale power grids:

  1. Retrofit – reconfigure existing urban areas to take advantage of new technologies.
  2. Greenfield – build new neighborhoods hardwired for clean block-scale power.

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